User research

User research focuses on understanding user behaviors, needs, and motivations through observation techniques, task analysis, and other feedback methodologies.[1]

This field of research aims at improving the usability of products, services, or processes[2] by incorporating experimental and observational research[3] methods to guide the design, development, and refinement of a product. User researchers often work alongside designers, engineers, and programmers in all stages of product creation and idealization.[4]

User research is an iterative, cyclical process in which observation identifies a problem space for which solutions are proposed. From these proposals, design solutions are prototyped and then tested with the target user group. This process is repeated as many times as necessary.[5]

Mike Kuniavsky further notes that it is “the process of understanding the impact of design on an audience.” The types of user research you can or should perform will depend on the type of site, system or app you are developing, your timeline, and your environment.[1]


  • Software Development
  • User experience Design

User research is interrelated with the field of design. In many cases, someone working in the field can take on both roles of researcher and designer. Alternatively, these roles may also be separated and teams of designers and researchers must collaborate through their projects.[6]


A wide range of research methods are available in the field of user research. To better understand when to use which method, it is helpful to view them along a 3-dimensional framework with the following axes[7]:

  • Attitudinal vs. behavioral
  • Qualitative vs. quantitative
  • Context of use

With respect to user research in the field of design, research is typically approached with an empathetic perspective in order to humanize data collected about people. This method can also be referred to a human-centred approach to problem solving. User researcher aims to uncover the barriers or frustrations users face as they interact with products, services, or systems. A unique facet of user research is the brand of user experience (UX) research which focuses on the feelings, thoughts, and situations users go through as they interact with products, services, and systems. Professionals that work to understand these obstacles are referred to as UX researchers.

Qualitative methods

  • Ethnographic studies
  • Guerrilla testing
  • Scenarios
  • Personas
  • Expert review
  • Focus groups
  • Card sorting
  • Contextual design
  • Parallel design
  • Prototyping
  • Task analysis
  • Content analysis[8]

Quantitative methods

  • Surveys
  • First click testing
  • Eye tracking
  • Web analytics
  • A/B testing


  1. ^ Jump up to:ab “User Research Basics”. 8 October 2013.
  2. ^“How To Conduct User Experience Research Like A Professional”. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  3. ^Pelt, Mason (2016-05-22). “Stop overthinking UX and try the coffee shop test”.
  4. ^Ligertwood, Guy (2018-06-07). “13 Coworkers Who Are Crucial to Your Success as a UX Designer”. Medium. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  5. ^“Complete Beginner’s Guide to UX Research – UX Booth”.
  6. ^Beresh, Ziev (March 9, 2020). “User Experience Research and Usability Testing: When and How to Test Your Product”. User Interviews.
  7. ^“When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods”. Nielsen Norman Group.
  8. ^Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Shannon, Sarah E. (2005). “SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research”. Qualitative Health Research. 15 (9): 1277–1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687. PMID 16204405.

Ofer Abarbanel online library

Ofer Abarbanel online library

Ofer Abarbanel online library