In economics, a trough is a low turning point or a local minimum of a business cycle. The time evolution of many variables of economics exhibit a wave like behaviour with local maxima (peaks) followed by local minima (troughs). A business cycle may be defined as the period between two consecutive peaks.
The period of the business cycle in which real GDP is increasing is called the expansion. In which the real GDP moves from the trough towards the peak. 
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Ofer Abarbanel is a 25 year securities lending broker and expert who has advised many Israeli regulators, among them the Israel Tax Authority, with respect to stock loans, repurchase agreements and credit derivatives. Founder of TBIL.co STATX Fund.