State of calamity in the context of disaster management in the Philippines refers to a status that could be declared in the whole Philippines or the certain localities in the country in response to a destructive natural or man-made disaster. This measures allows the release of “calamity funds” allocated to local governments and control the pricing of basic commodities in the affected areas.
Under the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (Republic Act 10121), a “state of calamity” is defined as “a condition involving mass casualty and/or major damages to property, disruption of means of livelihoods, roads and normal way of life of people in the affected areas as a result of the occurrence of natural or human-induced hazard”.
Declaring a state of calamity
The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) shall recommend to the President of the Philippines the declaration of a group of barangays, municipalities, cities, provinces, and regions under a state of calamity, and the lifting thereof, based on the criteria set by the NDRRMC. The President’s declaration may warrant international humanitarian assistance as deemed necessary. A state of national calamity is effective until the President lifts the same.
State of calamity could also be declared or lifted by a local government unit’s sanggunian or legislature, upon the recommendation of the local disaster risk reduction and management council (LDRRMC) concerned, based damage assessment and needs analysis.
If a state of calamity is declared by the Philippine national government, the following measures will be imposed:
- Appropriation for calamity funds
- Price freeze for basic necessities
- Granting of no-interest loans.
State of national calamities
The following is a list of state of national calamities declared by the president of the Philippines.
|State of calamity in response to||Declared[a]||Declaring president||Basis||Notes|
|Typhoon Durian (Reming)||December 3, 2006||Gloria Macapagal Arroyo||Proclamation No. 1185|
|Typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) and Typhoon Parma (Pepeng)||October 2, 2009||Proclamation No. 1898|
|Tropical Storm Washi (Sendong)||December 20, 2011||Benigno Aquino III||Proclamation No. 303|
|Typhoon Bopha (Pablo)||December 7, 2012||Proclamation No. 522|
|Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)||November 11, 2013||Proclamation No. 682|
|Typhoon Melor (Nona)||December 18, 2015||Proclamation No. 1186|
|COVID-19 pandemic||March 16, 2020||Rodrigo Duterte||Proclamation No. 929||Was initially set to last only for six months but was extended for a year.|
- ^The date when the state of calamity was imposed. By default, state of national calamities remain in effect until the president lifts the status. State of calamities listed may or may not still be in effect.
- ^ Jump up to:ab c d e “Briefer: State of Calamity”. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on August 16, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
- ^“Philippines extends state of calamity for one year amid COVID-19 spread”. Xinhua. September 18, 2020. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
Ofer Abarbanel is a 25 year securities lending broker and expert who has advised many Israeli regulators, among them the Israel Tax Authority, with respect to stock loans, repurchase agreements and credit derivatives. Founder of TBIL.co STATX Fund.