Grinold and Kroner Model

The Grinold and Kroner Model is used to calculate expected returns for a stock, stock index or the market as whole. It is a part of a larger framework for making forecasts about market expectations.

One offshoot of this discounted cash flow analysis is the Fed Model. Under the Fed model, the earnings yield is compared to the 10-year treasury bonds. If the earnings yield is lower than that of the bonds, the investor would shift their money into the less risky T-bonds.

Grinold, Kroner, and Siegel (2011) estimated the inputs to the Grinold and Kroner model and arrived at a then-current equity risk premium estimate between 3.5% and 4%.[2] The equity risk premium is the difference between the expected total return on a capitalization-weighted stock market index and the yield on a riskless government bond (in this case one with 10 years to maturity).


  1. ^Richard Grinold and Kenneth Kroner, “The Equity Risk Premium,” Investment Insights (Barclays Global Investors, July 2002).
  2. ^Richard Grinold, Kenneth Kroner, and Laurence Siegel, “A Supply Model of the Equity Premium,” in B. Hammond, M. Leibowitz, and L. Siegel, eds., Rethinking the Equity Risk Premium, Charlottesville, VA: Research Foundation of CFA Institute, 2011.

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