Differential voting right shares (Ofer Abarbanel online library)

Differential voting right (DVR) shares are same as ordinary equity shares except such stock does not dilute the promoters voting rights and makes it difficult for hostile takeovers.[1][2] On the other hand, DVR shares have been described as an instrument that is more beneficial to the issuers than to investors, and it often leads to problems of low liquidity.[2]

Several jurisdictions around the world allow the issue of shares with differential voting rights, with the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and India all allowing some form of DVR shares.[3][4] The financial legislation in countries where DVR are allowed usually carries specific regulations that prevent the practice from being abused. Restrictions usually include limiting the percentage of DVR out of the total issued share capital and only allowing DVR shared for companies with distributable profits who have not defaulted in filing annual accounts and returns for at least three financial years.[1][5]


  1. ^ Jump up to:ab Jaleel, Tania Kishore (29 April 2011). “What are differential voting rights (DVR) shares?”. Business Standard India. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  2. ^ Jump up to:ab Pathak, Bharati V. (2008) [2003]. The Indian Financial System: Markets, Institutions And Services, 2/E (Second ed.). New Delhi, India: Pearson Education India. p. 308. ISBN 978-81-7758-562-9.
  3. ^Tomasic, Roman; Bottomley, Stephen; McQueen, Rob (2002). Corporations Law in Australia (Second ed.). Sydney, Australia: Federation Press. pp. 582–583. ISBN 978-1-86287-314-8.
  4. ^Babu, G. Ramesh (2005). Financial Services In India. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 81. ISBN 978-81-8069-218-5.
  5. ^C, Tulsian (2011). Business and Corporate Laws. New Delhi, India: S. Chand Publishing. p. 8.2. ISBN 978-81-219-3641-5.


Ofer Abarbanel online library